1.A. In rejecting the functionalism in positivist organization theory, either wholly or partially, there is often a move towards a political model of organization theory.
B. Thus, the analysis would shift to the power resources possessed by different groups in the organization and the way they use these resources in actual power plays to shape the organizational structure.
C. At the extreme, in one set of writings, the growth of administrators in the organization is held to be completely unrelated to the work to be done and to be caused totally by the political pursuit of self-interest.
D. The political model holds that individual interests are pursued in organizational life through the exercise of power and influence.
2.A. Group decision-making, however, does not necessarily fully guard against arbitrariness and anarchy, for individual capriciousness can get substituted by collusion of group members.
B. Nature itself is an intricate system of checks and balances, meant to preserve the delicate balance between various environmental factors that affect our ecology.
C. In institutions also, there is a need to have in place a system of checks and balances which inhibits the concentration of power in the hands of only some individuals.
D. When human interventions alter this delicate balance, the outcomes have been seen to be disastrous.
3.A. He was bone-weary and soul-weary, and found himself muttering, “Either I can’t manage this place, or it’s unmanageable.”
B. To his horror, he realized that he had become the victim of an amorphous, unwitting, unconscious conspiracy to immerse him in routine work that had no significance.
C. It was one of those nights in the office when the office clock was moving towards four in the morning and Bennis was still not through with the incredible mass of paper stacked before him.
D. He reached for his calendar and ran his eyes down each hour, half-hour, and quarter-hour, to see where his time had gone that day, the day before, the month before.
4.A. With that, I swallowed the shampoo, and obtained the most realistic results almost on the spot.
B. The man shuffled away into the back regions to make up a prescription, and after a moment I got through on the shop-telephone to the Consulate, intimating my location.
C. Then, while the pharmacist was wrapping up a six-ounce bottle of the mixture, I groaned and inquired whether he could give me something for acute gastric cramp.
D. I intended to stage a sharp gastric attack, and entering an old-fashioned pharmacy, I asked for a popular shampoo mixture, consisting of olive oil and flaked soap.
5.A. Since then, intelligence tests have been mostly used to separate dull children in school from average or bright children, so that special education can be provided to the dull.
B. In other words, intelligence tests give us a norm for each age.
C. Intelligence is expressed as intelligence quotient, and tests are developed to indicate what an average child of a certain age can do …. What a five-year-old can answer, but a four-year-old cannot, for instance.
D. Binet developed the first set of such tests in the early 1900s to find out which children in school needed special attention.
E. Intelligence can be measured by tests.
Directions for questions 6 to 13:
Read each of the eight short passages given below and answer the question that follow it.
6. Three airlines — IA, JA and SA — operate on the Delhi- Mumbai route. To increase the number of seats sold, SA reduced its fares and this was emulated by IA and JA immediately. The general belief was that the volume of air travel between Delhi and Mumbai would increase as a result. Which of the following, if true, would add credence to the general belief?
a. Increase in profitability of the three airlines.
b. Extension of the discount scheme to other routes.
c. A study that shows that air travellers in India are price-conscious.
d. A study that shows that as much as 80 per cent of air travel in India is company-sponsored.
7.According to McNeill, a Brahmin priest was expected to be able to recite at least one of the Vedas. The practice was essential for several centuries when the Vedas had not yet been written down. It must have had a selective effect, since priests would have been recruited from those able or willing to memorize long passages. It must have helped in the dissemination of the work, since a memorized passage can be duplicated many times.
Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage?
a. Reciting the Vedas was a Brahmin’s obligation.
b. The Vedic priest was like a recorded audio cassette.
c. McNeill studied the behaviour of Brahmin priests.
d. Vedic hymns had not been scripted.
8.Developed countries have made adequate provisions for social security for senior citizens. State insurers (as well as private ones) offer medicare and pension benefits to people who can no longer earn. In India, with the collapse of the joint family system, the traditional shelter of the elderly has disappeared. And the state faced with a financial crunch is not in a position to provide social security. So, it is advisable that the working population give serious thought to building a financial base for itself. Which one of the following, if it were to happen, weakens the conclusions drawn in the above passage the most?
a. The investible income of the working population, as a proportion of its total income, will grow in the future.
b. The insurance sector is underdeveloped and trends indicate that it will be extensively privatized in the future.
c. India is on a path of development that will take it to a developed country status, with all its positive and negative implications.
d. If the working population builds a stronger financial base, there will be a revival of the joint family system.
9. Various studies have shown that our forested and hilly regions and, in general, areas where biodiversity — as reflected in the variety of flora — is high, are the places where poverty appears to be high. And these same areas are also the ones where educational performance seems to be poor. Therefore, it may be surmised that, even disregarding poverty status, richness in biodiversity goes hand in hand with educational backwardness. Which one of the following statements, if true, can be said to best provide supporting evidence for the surmise mentioned in the passage?
a. In regions where there is little variety in flora, educational performance is seen to be as good as in regions with high variety in flora, where poverty levels are high.
b. Regions which show high biodiversity also exhibit poor education performance, at low levels of poverty.
c. Regions which show high biodiversity reveal high levels of poverty and poor educational performance.
d. In regions where there is low biodiversity, at all levels of poverty, educational performance is seen to be good.
10.Cigarettes constitute a mere 20 per cent of tobacco consumption in India, and fewer than 15 per cent of the 200 million tobacco users consume cigarettes. Yet these 15 per cent contribute nearly 90 per cent of the tax revenues to the exchequer from the tobacco sector. The punitive cigarette taxation regime has kept the tax base narrow, and reducing taxes will expand this base. Which of the following best bolsters the conclusion that reducing duties will expand the tax base?
a. The cigarette manufacturers’ association has decided to indulge in aggressive promotion.
b. There is a likelihood that tobacco consumers will shift to cigarette smoking if cigarette prices were to reduce.
c. The cigarette manufacturers are lobbying for a reduction on duties.
d. An increase in duties on non-cigarette tobacco may lead to a shift in favour of cigarette smoking.
11. Thomas Malthus, the British clergyman-turned economist, predicted that the planet would not be able to support the human population for long. His explanation was that human population grows at a geometric rate, while the food supply grows only at an arithmetic rate. Which one of the following, if true, would not undermine the thesis offered by Malthus?
a. Population growth can be slowed down by the voluntary choices of individuals and not just by natural disasters.
b. The capacity of the planet to feed a growing human population can be enhanced through biotechnological means.
c. Human systems, and natural systems like food supply, follow natural laws of growth which have remained constant, and will remain unchanged.
d. Human beings can colonize other planetary systems on a regular and ongoing basis to accommodate a growing population.
12.The company’s coffee crop for 1998-99 totalled 8,079 tonnes, an all-time record. The increase over the previous year’s production of 5,830 tonnes was 38.58 per cent. The previous highest crop was 6,089 tonnes in 1970-71. The company had fixed a target of 8,000 tonnes to be realized by the year 2000-01, and this has been achieved two years earlier, thanks to the emphasis laid on the key areas of irrigation, replacement of unproductive coffee bushes, intensive refilling and improved agricultural practices. It is now our endeavour to reach the target of 10,000 tonnes in 2001-02. Which one of the following would contribute most to making the target of 10,000 tonnes in 2001-02
a. The potential of the productivity enhancing measures implemented up to now has been exhausted.
b. The total company land under coffee has remained constant since 1969 when an estate in the Nilgiri Hills was acquired.
c. The sensitivity of the crop to climatic factors makes predictions about production uncertain.
d. The target-setting procedures in the company had been proved to be sound by the achievement of the 8,000 tonnes target.
13.Animals, in general, are shrewd in proportion as they cultivate society. Elephants and beavers show the greatest signs of this sagacity when they are together in large numbers, but when man invades their communities they lose all their spirit of industry. Among insects, the labours of the bee and the ant have attracted the attention and admiration of naturalists, but all their sagacity seems to be lost upon separation, and a single bee or ant seems destitute of every degree of industry. It becomes the most stupid insect imaginable, and it languishes and soon dies. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage?
a. Humankind is responsible for the destruction of the natural habitat of animals and insects.
b. Animals, in general, are unable to function effectively outside their normal social environment.
c. Naturalists have great admiration for bees and ants, despite their lack of industry upon separation.
d. Elephants and beavers are smarter than bees and ants in the presence of human beings.
Directions for questions 14 and 15:
For each of the two questions, indicate which of the statements given with that particular question is consistent with the description of the unreasonable man in the passage below.
Unseasonableness is a tendency to do socially permissible things at the wrong time. The unseasonable man is the sort of person who comes to confide in you when you are busy. He serenades his beloved when she is ill. He asks a man who has just lost money by paying a bill for a friend to pay a bill for him. He invites a friend to go for a ride just after the friend has finished a long car trip. He is eager to offer services which are not wanted, but which cannot be politely refused. If he is present at an arbitration, he stirs up dissension between the two parties, who were really anxious to agree. Such is the unseasonable man.
14.He tends to
a. entertain women.
b. be a successful arbitrator when dissenting parties are anxious to agree.
c. be helpful when solicited.
d. tell a long story to people who have heard it many times before.
15.The unseasonable man tends to
a. bring a higher bidder to a salesman who has just closed a deal.
b. disclose confidential information to others.
c. sing the praises of the bride when he goes to a wedding.
d. sleep late and rise early.
Directions for questions 16 to 23:
In each of the following sentences, a part of the sentence is underlined.
Beneath each sentence, four different ways of phrasing the underlined part are indicated. Choose the best alternative among the four.
16.It was us who had left before he arrived.
a. we who had left before time he had arrived.
b. us who had went before he arrived.
c. us who had went before had arrived.
d. we who had left before he arrived.
17.The MP rose up to say that in her opinion, she thought the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed on unanimously.
a. rose to say that she thought the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed
b. rose up to say that, the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed on
c. rose to say that, in her opinion, she thought that the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed
d. rose to say that, in her opinion, the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed on
18. Mr Pillai, the president of the union and who is also a member of the community group, will be in charge of the negotiations.
a. since he is a member of the community group
b. also being a member of the community group
c. a member of the community group
d. in addition, who is a member of the community group
19. Since the advent of cable television, at the beginning of this decade, the entertainment industry took a giant stride forward in our country.
a. this decade saw the entertainment industry taking
b. this decade, the entertainment industry has taken
c. this decade, the entertainment industry had taken
d. this decade, the entertainment industry took
20. His mother made great sacrifices to educate him, moving house on three occasions, and severing the thread on her loom’s shuttle whenever Mencius neglected his lessons to make him understand the need to persevere.
a. severing the thread on her loom’s shuttle whenever Mencius neglected his lessons to make him understand the need to persevere.
b. severed the thread on her loom’s shuttle whenever Mencius neglected his lessons to make him understand the need to persevere.
c. severed the thread on her loom’s shuttle whenever Mencius neglected his lessons to make him understand the need for persevering.
d. severing the thread on her loom’s shuttle whenever Mencius neglected his lessons to make them understand the need to persevere.